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Lebanon Copyright Law
Lebanon Copyright Law

lebanon_copyright_law_en.pdf
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 1/19
Law on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property*
(No. 75 of April 3, 1999)
TABLE OF CONTENTS**
Articles
Chapter I: Definitions..................................................................... 1
Chapter II: Protected Works............................................................ 2 - 4
Chapter III: Copyright Holder and Terms of Protection ................... 5 - 11
Chapter IV: Criteria of Eligibility for Protection .............................. 12 - 13
Chapter V: Rights Enjoyed by Copyright Holders ......................... 14 - 22
Chapter VI: Exceptions..................................................................... 23 - 34
Chapter VII: Related Rights............................................................... 35 - 48
Chapter VIII: Terms of Protection....................................................... 49 - 57
Chapter IX: Collective Management Associations and Companies.. 58 - 75
Chapter X: Deposit .......................................................................... 76 - 80
Chapter XI: Provisionsal Measures, Damages and Sanctions........... 81 - 97
Chapter XII: Transitional and Temporary Provisions ........................ 98 - 101
Chapter I
Definitions
1. For the purpose of applying the provisions of this Law, the meaning of the terms and
expressions hereinafter shall be as follows, unless otherwise indicated in the context. These
definitions apply also to related rights.
“Performance of work” means the execution of a work through exhibition, playing
music, reciting, narrating, acting, dancing or any other means whether directly or through any
means or device.
“Public performance” means a performance which is given in a place or places where
the number of persons present exceeds the members of one family and their direct
acquaintances.
“Broadcasting” means the transmission of the work for public reception by wireless
means including transmission by satellite.
“Computer program” means a set of orders expressed in words or symbols or in any
other form which when entered into a matter readable by a computer shall enable the
computer to perform or execute a certain task or give a certain result.
“Phonogram/sound recording” means every fixation by any physical means of the
sounds of a performance or of other sounds, whether resulting from the performance of a
work or not, other than a fixation incorporated in an audiovisual work.
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“Reprographic reproduction” means making copies from the original of a work by
means other than printing, such as photocopying, and includes enlarged or reduced copies of
the work.
“Related rights” means the rights that performers, producers of phonograms, television
and radio broadcasting organizations and publishing houses enjoy.
“Work” means every work within the meaning of Articles 2 and 3 of this Law.
“Collective work” means a work in which more than one natural person participates
under the initiative and supervision of a natural person who, or legal entity which, undertakes
to publish it under his/its own name.
“Audiovisual work” means every work consisting of a set of consecutive images related
to each other, whether accompanied by sound or not, and that gives the impression of motion
if displayed, broadcast or transmitted with special devices.
“Work of joint authorship” means every work created by more than one author on
condition that the said work does not constitute a collective work.
“Producer of sound recording/phonogram or audiovisual work” means the natural
person who, or legal entity which, takes the initiative and responsibility for producing the
audiovisual work or sound recording/phonogram.
“Author” means the natural person who creates a certain work.
“Reproduction” means making one or more copies of any work by any means or in any
form, including a permanent or temporary recording on phonogram records, tapes, disks,
electronic memory, and this also includes issuing a copy in two dimensions of a threedimensional
work, or a copy in three dimensions of a two-dimensional work.
“Copy” means the product of any copying, recording, printing, or photocopying of the
original work.
“Publication” means making copies of the work or of the sound recording/phonogram
available to the public in reasonable quantities with the consent of the author or the producer
of the sound recording/phonogram, by means of selling, renting, or any other means of
property transfer or acquisition of a copy of the work or the sound recording/phonogram or of
the right to use them. The word “publication” also means making copies of the work or sound
recording/phonogram available to the public by any electronic means.
The performance of a dramatic, dramatico-musical, cinematographic or musical work,
the public recitation of a literary work, the communication by wire or the broadcasting of
artistic or literary works, the exhibition of a work of art and the construction of a work of
architecture shall not be considered publication.
A sound recording/phonogram is not considered published if received by any device, or
means or if broadcast.
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“Communication to the public” means making the work available to the public by wire
or wireless transmission of sounds and/or images, in such a way as to allow the public to hear
or view the work at a distance from the broadcasting center.
This includes making the work available to the public by wire or wireless means (like
the internet) in such a way that every person may access it from a place and at a time chosen
by them.
Chapter II
Protected Works
2. The protection of this Law shall apply to every production of the human spirit be it
written, pictorial, sculptural, manuscript or oral, regardless of its value, importance or purpose
and the mode or form of its expression.
The protection of this Law shall apply, among other works, to:
– books, archives, pamphlets, publications, printed material and other literary, scientific
and artistic writings;
– lectures, addresses and other oral works;
– audiovisual works and photographs;
– musical compositions with or without words;
– dramatic or dramatico-musical works;
– choreographic works and pantomimes;
– drawings, sculpture, engraving, ornamentation, weaving and lithography;
– illustrations and drawings related to architecture;
– computer programs whatever their language and including preliminary work;
– maps, plans, sketches and three-dimensional works relative to geography,
topography, architecture or science;
– any kind of plastic art work whether intended for industry or not.
3. The following derivative works shall be subject to the provisions of this Law and
shall be protected as original works without prejudice to the rights in the original work:
– translations, adaptations, transformations and arrangements of music;
– collections of literary or artistic works and compilations of data, whether in machinereadable
or other form, provided that they are authorized by the copyright holder or his public
or private successors and that by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents
they constitute intellectual creations.
4. The following shall be excluded from the protection provided by this Law:
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– daily news;
– laws, legislative decrees, decrees and decisions issued by all public authorities and
official translations thereof;
– judicial decisions of all kinds and official translations thereof;
– speeches delivered in public assemblies and meetings. The authors of speeches and
presentations shall enjoy the sole right of collecting and publishing such lectures and
presentations;
– ideas, data and abstract scientific facts;
– artistic folkloric works of all kinds. However, works inspired by folklore shall enjoy
protection.
Chapter III
Copyright Holder and Terms of Protection
5. The author of any artistic or literary work shall, as a result of the creation of the
work, have an absolute property right over his work and shall reserve all his rights without
having to follow any formalities.
6. In the case of a joint work in which each contribution consists of an integral part of
the work as a whole, all the contributors shall be considered coauthors and co-owners of
copyright in the work. However, if it is possible to distinguish the contribution of each author
from the others, each of the joint authors shall be considered the author of his own
contribution.
In a joint work, none of the coauthors may, in the absence of any written agreement to
the contrary, exercise copyright without the consent of the other authors.
7. In the case of a collective work, the natural person who, or legal entity which, took
the initiative to create the work and supervise its execution shall, in the absence of any
agreement to the contrary, be considered the copyright holder.
8. In the case of a work created by natural persons working under a work contract for a
natural person or legal entity in the course of performing their duties or professional
obligations, the employer shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the copyright
holder and shall exercise the rights provided for in Article 15 of this Law.
9. In the case of an audiovisual work, the producer shall, in the absence of any
agreement to the contrary, be considered the copyright holder.
10. In the case of anonymous and pseudonymous works, the natural person who, or
legal entity which, published the work shall be considered the author. However should the
identity of the author be revealed, he himself shall exercise these rights.
11. The person whose name is shown on a literary or artistic work in the commonly
known way shall, unless proved otherwise, be considered the author.
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Chapter IV
Criteria of Eligibility for Protection
12. The protection of this Law shall apply to the artistic and literary works of the
following:
– Lebanese authors, wherever they reside;
– non-Lebanese authors who are nationals of, or resident in, a State party to the Berne
Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works or the Universal Copyright
Convention;
– authors who are nationals of any State that is a member of the Arab League but which
is not party to the above-mentioned Conventions, provided reciprocal treatment is applied;
– producers of audiovisual works who have their headquarters or habitual residence in
Lebanon or in any State party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and
Artistic Works or the Universal Copyright Convention.
13. The protection of this Law shall apply to:
– literary and artistic works first published in Lebanon;
– literary and artistic works first published in a State party to one of the abovementioned
Conventions;
– literary and artistic works first published outside Lebanon and outside the States party
to one of the above-mentioned Conventions, provided that they are published in Lebanon or
in a State party to the above-mentioned Conventions within 30 days of their publication in the
other country.
Chapter V
Rights Enjoyed by Copyright Holders
14. The copyright holder shall enjoy economic and moral rights.
15. The copyright holder shall have the exclusive right to exploit the work
commercially and, accordingly, shall have the right to authorize or prohibit the following:
– any copying, printing, recording and reproduction of the work in any manner or form
including photography, cinematography, sound or visual recordings of any kind or any other
form;
– any translation, adaptation, alteration, transformation, summarizing, reworking of the
work or rearrangement of the music;
– the sale, distribution or rental of the work;
– the importation of copies of the work manufactured abroad;
– the public performance of the work;
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– communication to the public of the work by wire or wireless means, whether through
hertzian waves or the like or through coded or uncoded satellites, including the rebroadcast of
normal television or radio broadcasts or satellite transmissions by any means of diffusion of
sounds and images.
16. The economic rights of the author shall be considered as movable rights and may be
transferred in whole or in part.
17. Any contract for the exploitation or assignment of economic rights shall, whatever
its subject, be drawn up in writing, otherwise it shall entail nullity of the contract. It shall set
out in detail the rights covered by the contract and indicate the time and location. The
contract shall also require that the author gets a percentage of the exploitation revenues and
assignment proceeds. If such a contract does not set a time limit, it shall be valid for 10 years
only from the date of signature of the contract.
18. The assignment in whole of future works shall be considered as void.
19. The assignment by the author of any of his rights must be limited in all cases to that
right only and copyright contracts shall be construed in a restrictive manner.
20. The author and composer of a song shall have equal rights in that work, unless
agreed otherwise.
21. Independently of the rights provided for in the previous Article and even after the
assignment of the said rights, the author shall enjoy the following moral rights:
– the right to disclose the work and to determine the way and method of such
disclosure;
– the right to claim authorship of the work and to have his name mentioned on every
copy of the work each time the work is used in public;
– the right to use a pseudonym or to remain anonymous;
– the right to object to any distortion, mutilation or modification of the work which
would be prejudicial to his honor, reputation, fame or artistic, literary or scientific position;
– the right to rescind contracts for the assignment of economic rights even after their
publication if rescission is necessary to safeguard his person and reputation or is due to a change
in his beliefs or in the circumstances, provided that third parties are compensated for damage
resulting from such rescission.
22. It shall not be permitted to assign or attach the moral rights of the author but the
said rights may be transmitted by testamentary disposition or inheritance laws.
Chapter VI
Exceptions
23. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 24 of this Law, any natural person
may, for his personal and private use, copy, record or make a single copy of any work
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protected under this Law without the authorization or consent of the copyright holder and
without having to pay him any compensation, provided that the work has been legally
published.
The use of a copy copied or reproduced inside a company or at any other work place
shall not be considered as personal and private use.
24. The exception provided for in the previous Article shall not apply if it is prejudicial
to the other rights and interests of the copyright holder. In particular, it shall be prohibited to:
– execute an architectural work in the form of a complete or partial construction;
– copy, record or reproduce any work of which a limited number of original copies are
published;
– reproduce the whole or a significant part of a book;
– record or transmit compilations of data of all kinds;
– record or copy computer programs unless the record or copy is made by the person
authorized by the copyright holder to use the program and for the purpose of making a single
copy for use in the case of loss or damage of the original copy.
25. Non-profit-making educational institutions, universities and public libraries may,
without the authorization of the author and without obligation to pay him compensation,
reproduce a limited number of computer programs for the purpose of lending them free of
charge to students and university people, provided that they possess at least one original copy
of the work and provided that the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Culture and Higher
Education and the Ministry of Technical and Vocational Education subsequently issue decrees
determining the copying mechanism, the categories of computer programs that may be copied
and the number of copies allowed. Students may make one copy for their personal use.
It shall also be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to use a limited part of any legally published work for purposes of
criticism, argumentation or citation or for an educational purpose, provided that the part used
does not exceed what is necessary and customary. However, the name of the author and the
source shall always be indicated, if the name of the author is included in the work.
26. It shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to copy or reproduce articles published in newspapers and
magazines or short excerpts of a work, provided that it is done solely for educational purposes
and within the necessary limits of such purpose. If the names of the author(s) and the
publisher appear on the original work, they shall be mentioned in each and every use of the
copy of the article or work.
27. Non-profit-making public libraries may, without the authorization of the author and
without obligation to pay him compensation, make an additional copy of a work to be used in
case of loss or damage of the original work, provided that they possess at least one copy of the
original work.
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28. It shall be permitted, by decision of the Minister of Culture and Higher Education,
without the authorization of the author and without obligation to pay him compensation, to
copy, reproduce or record an audiovisual work of special artistic value in order to keep it in
the Ministry’s archives, in case the copyright holder unfairly refuses to authorize the making
of the said copy.
29. It shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to copy, reproduce or record a specific work for use in judicial or
administrative proceedings and within the limits required by such proceedings.
30. The media shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author, without
obligation to pay compensation to the author, and within the limits of fair practice, to use
short excerpts of works that are displayed or heard during current events in the course of
reporting such events in the media, provided that the name of the author and the source are
mentioned.
31. The media shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without
obligation to pay him compensation, to publish pictures of architectural works, visual artistic
works, photographic works or works of applied art, provided that such works are available in
places open to the public.
32. It shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to display or perform a work in public during the following
occasions:
– official ceremonies within the limits required for such ceremonies;
– activities carried out by educational institutions during which teachers or students use
the work, provided that the audience is limited to the teachers, students, students’ parents and
persons directly involved in the activities of the said educational institution.
33. It shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to display an artistic work in museums or in exhibitions organized
inside museums provided that the museum owns the tangible material that contains the work and
that such display is not prejudicial to the legal interests of the author.
34. It shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation
to pay him compensation, to copy or reproduce an artistic work for the purpose of publishing
it in catalogues intended to facilitate the sale of the work, provided that such copying or
reproduction is not prejudicial to the legal interests of the author.
Chapter VII
Related Rights
35. Producers of sound recordings, radio and television broadcasting organizations,
publishing houses and performers such as actors, musicians, singers, members of musical
groups, dancers, artists of puppet shows and circus artists shall be considered as holders of
related rights.
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36. Producers of sound recordings shall enjoy protection in the following cases:
(a) if the producer of the sound recording is Lebanese or a national of a State party to
the Rome Convention 1961—International Convention for the Protection of Performers,
Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations, done at Rome on October 26,
1961;
(b) if the first fixation of sound is undertaken in a State party to the above-mentioned
Convention;
(c) if the sound recording is first published in a State party to the above-mentioned
Convention. If the sound recording is first published in a country that is not party to the
Rome Convention and published afterwards, within 30 days of the first publication, in a State
that is party to the said Convention, the said sound recording shall be considered as first
published in the State party to the Convention.
37. Performers shall enjoy protection in the following cases:
(a) when their performance is undertaken in Lebanon or in a State party to the Rome
Convention;
(b) when their performance is fixed in a sound recording protected under Article 36 of
this Law;
(c) when their unfixed performance is fixed in a sound recording through a program
protected under Article 38 of this Law.
38. Broadcasting organizations shall enjoy protection in the following two cases:
(a) if the headquarters of the organization is in Lebanon or in a State party to the Rome
Convention;
(b) if the program is broadcast via a transmission device in Lebanon or in a State party
to the Rome Convention.
39. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 15 of this Law, performers shall have
the right to authorize or prohibit the following:
– the broadcasting or communication to the public of their unfixed performance unless
the broadcasting or communication is a rebroadcast of a previously authorized broadcast;
– the fixation or recording of their unfixed performance on any tangible material;
– the copying, sale or rental of any recordings containing an unauthorized fixation of
their performance;
40. Performers participating in a joint work or show shall elect by relative majority one
person to represent them in the exercise of their rights stated in Article 39 of this Law.
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41. Producers, who are authorized by the performers to undertake the first fixation of
an audiovisual work on any tangible matter, shall have the exclusive right to copy, distribute,
sell and rent the audiovisual work they have produced and communicate it to the public.
42. The radio and television companies, establishments and corporations referred to in
Article 38 of this Law, shall have the right to authorize or prohibit the following:
– the rebroadcasting of their programs by whatever means;
– the showing of their television programs in places where entrance is permitted upon
payment of an entrance fee;
– the recording of their programs on tangible material for commercial purposes;
– the copying of unauthorized recordings of their radio and television programs.
43. Producers of sound recordings shall have the right to authorize or prohibit direct
and indirect copying as well as the rental of such recordings for commercial purposes.
44. Performers shall have the right, during their lifetime, to claim authorship of, and to
object to any alteration or modification of, their performance. This right shall pass to the
heirs of the performer after his death.
45. Publishers of written or printed works shall have the right to authorize or prohibit
the copying of such works by means of photocopying or commercial exploitation.
46. Any agreement on related rights shall be concluded in writing.
47. The exceptions set forth in Articles 23 to 34 of this Law shall apply to the rights
provided for in Articles 35 to 45 of this Law.
48. The protection of related rights shall not affect any of the rights in respect of
original and derivative works protected under this Law. Any interpretation of any of the
rights granted under this Chapter shall not affect the rights of the original author.
Chapter VIII
Terms of Protection
49. The term of protection granted under this Law to the economic rights of the author,
shall be the life of the author and 50 years after his death, to be computed from the end of the
year in which the death has occurred.
50. In the case of a work of joint authorship, the term of protection shall be the life of
the joint authors and 50 years after the death of the last joint author, to be computed from the
end of the year in which the death has occurred. Should one of the authors die without
leaving heirs, his share shall pass to the co-authors or to their heirs, unless stated otherwise.
51. In the case of collective and audiovisual works, the term of protection shall be 50
years to be computed from the end of the year in which the work has been made available to
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the public or, failing such event, 50 years from the making of such work, to be computed from
the end of the year in which the work has been completed.
52. In the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection shall expire
50 years after the work has been lawfully made available to the public.
However, if the pseudonym adopted by the author leaves no doubt as to his identity, or if
the identity of the author of an anonymous or pseudonymous work is disclosed before the
expiration of the 50-year period starting from the end of the year in which the work was lawfully
made available to the public, the provisions of Article 49 of this Law shall apply. In the case of
posthumous works or works published in the name of a legal person, the term of protection shall
be 50 years to be computed from the end of the year in which the work was published.
53. All moral rights of authors or performers shall enjoy perpetual protection that shall not
be subject to prescription. They shall be transmitted to third parties by testamentary disposition or
under inheritance laws.
54. All economic related rights of performers shall enjoy protection for a period of 50
years to be computed from the end of the year in which the performance has been carried out.
55. The term of protection granted to producers of sound recordings shall be 50 years,
to be computed from the end of the year in which the first fixation of sound on tangible
material has taken place.
56. The term of protection granted to broadcasting organizations shall be 50 years, to
be computed from the end of the year in which the broadcasting of their programs has taken
place.
57. The term of protection granted to publishing houses shall be 50 years, to be
computed from the end of the year in which the first publication has taken place.
Chapter IX
Collective Management Associations and Companies
58. Authors and holders of related rights or their universal or particular successors may
assign the management of their rights and the collection, in whole or in part, of royalties due
to civil associations or companies formed among them.
59. Assignment shall be made by way of a written power of attorney drafted before a
notary public and explicitly stating all the rights the management of which are assigned to the
association or company.
The power of attorney shall be limited in time and may include all or part of the present
or future works of the author or the holder of related rights. If there is ground for doubt, all
the works shall be considered as covered by the power of attorney.
60. Any association or company willing to undertake the collective management of
rights must, before carrying out any activity, deposit with the Ministry of Culture and Higher
Education a legal attestation certifying the constitution of the association according to the
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Law of Associations, or a certificate of registration of the company with the competent
registrar, in addition to the following documents:
– a copy of the Articles of Association;
– the name and address of the director in charge;
– the number of authors and holders of related rights that have assigned the
management of their rights and the collection of their royalties to the association or company;
– a copy of the proxies granted to the association or company by the authors, the
holders of related rights or their universal or particular successors;
– the term of the proxies;
– the mode of distribution of the royalties collected;
– the annual budget of the association or company.
61. The associations or companies for the collective management of rights shall be
subject to the authority and control of the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education and they
shall provide the Ministry with all necessary records and account books for ministerial
control.
62. Each association or company must appoint a certified accountant to audit its records
and submit an annual report to the General Assembly. However, the association or company
must obtain an annual report from another certified accountant.
63. Each asociation or company must hold at least one general assembly a year to vote
on the report of the president, the financial reports, the balance sheet of the previous year and
the budget of the following year.
64. Pursuant to the legislation regulating the legal profession, each association or
company must appoint a lawyer from the Bar as its legal consultant.
65. If the association or company commits a serious infraction or in the event of a
repetition of a legal or regulatory infraction, the Minister of Culture or Higher Education may
refer the file to the public prosecutor for action.
66. The Council of Ministers shall, within three months of the publication of this Law
in the official gazette and upon the recommendation of the Minister of Culture and Higher
Education, issue a decree prescribing the mode of establishment and functioning of the said
associations and companies and the manner in which the Ministry of Culture and Higher
Education shall monitor their activities and establish violations.
67. The associations or companies for the collective management of rights shall have
the following responsibilities:
– to arrange contracts with the parties using the work and to determine the royalties to
be collected;
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– to distribute the royalties collected among the eligible parties;
– to take all administrative, judicial, arbitral and amicable measures to protect the
legitimate rights of their clients and to collect royalties due;
– to obtain from the users of the work all necessary information for the computation,
collection and distribution of royalties.
68. The associations or companies for the collective management of rights shall not
have the right to refuse to arrange contracts under Article 67 of this Law with the users of the
works without a legitimate reason.
69. The user of the work must submit to the association or company a list of the
exploitations that he has undertaken such as the copying, sale, rental or television or radio
broadcasting of the work and he shall indicate the number of copies, the number of public
displays of the work or the number of television or radio broadcasts.
70. Companies and associations shall not have the right to refuse to administer the
rights of an author or collect the royalties owed to him without a legitimate reason.
71. Each company or association must submit an annual report to the authors that have
empowered it to administer their rights and collect royalties owed to them so that the authors
can express their opinions as to the amounts collected, the method of collection and
distribution and other administrative issues. The association must take these comments into
account when formulating or modifying its methods of collection and administration.
72. The authors, the holders of related rights and their representatives shall have the
right to examine the accounts of the company or the association to which they are affiliated
whenever they deem it necessary.
73. The authors and the holders of related rights which have empowered a specific
association or company to administer their rights and collect their royalties must inform the
association or the company in writing of the works they have published or those they intend to
publish after the date on which they have authorized the company or the association to
administer their rights and collect their royalties.
74. Collected amounts shall, at least once a year, be distributed among right holders in
proportion to the actual use of their works.
75. The power of attorney may be cancelled by the author, the holder of related rights
or the association or company provided that there is a legitimate reason for such cancellation
and that the other party is served notice three months before the end of the year. The
cancellation shall have effect as of the end of the year in which the other party has been
served notice of the intention to cancel.
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Chapter X
Deposit
76. Works, sound recordings, performances, and radio or television programs shall be
deposited with the Intellectual Property Protection Office at the Ministry of Economy and
Trade.
The deposit shall constitute a presumption as to the ownership by the depositor of the
work, the sound recording, the performance or the radio or television program. Such
presumption may be refuted by all available means.
77. Copyright holders, holders of related rights or their particular or universal
successors who wish to make a deposit must submit to the Intellectual Property Protection
Office an application signed by them or their agent containing the following information:
– the title and the type of work, sound recording, performance or radio or television
program;
– the name, title and address of the author or the holder of related rights. If the author
or the holder of related rights does not make the deposit personally, the foregoing information
must be given in respect of the depositor as well;
– if the depositor is a person other than the author or the holder of related rights, the
type of document on the basis of which the depositor has submitted the application for
deposit;
– where necessary, the name and address of the person responsible for the physical
execution of the work (the printer, the molder, etc.).
The application for deposit must be accompanied by:
(a) if the applicant is a person other than the author or the holder of related rights, a
copy or a summary of the document on the basis of which the deposit is made (power of
attorney, assignment, contract or agreement...);
(b) three copies of the work or the subject of the related right. In respect of pictures, oil
paintings, water colors, statues, works of architecture or other works having only one original,
a photographic or non photographic reproduction of the work in three dimensions shall be
provided showing the shape and form of the work in whole and in detail.
78.—(1) The application for deposit shall not be accepted unless it is accompanied by
the prescribed fee set out in this Article.
(2) The fees charged by the Intellectual Property Protection Office shall be as follows:
– deposit of a printed work, LBP 50,000;
– deposit of a motion picture, video film or sound recording, LBP 175,000;
– deposit of a daily or periodic publication, (for one year) LBP 75,000;
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 15/19
– deposit of a picture, drawing, map, post card, photograph or daily or periodic
publication, (1 copy), LBP 25,000;
– deposit of any other material not mentioned above, LBP 50,000;
– recordation of a contract of deposit with the Office, LBP 50,000;
– facsimile copy of a certificate of registration, LBP 25,000.
79. The application for deposit shall be registered at the Intellectual Property Protection
Office. A certificate shall be delivered to the applicant mentioning the information stated in
the application and it shall be accompanied by one of the three copies deposited with the
Office.
The certificate shall be dated, sealed and signed by the head of the said Office. The first
certificate shall be granted free of charge and the Office shall charge the prescribed fee
referred to in the previous Article for subsequent requested copies of this certificate.
80. Any contract concluded with regard to any work, sound recording, performance or
radio or television program registered at the Intellectual Property Protection Office may also
be recorded with the said Office.
Chapter XI
Provisional Measures, Damages and Sanctions
81. Where there is ground for suspecting an imminent infringement of copyright or a
related right, the holder of these rights or his public or private successors, in particular the
associations or companies for the collective administration of rights, shall have the right to
take all necessary provisional measures to prevent such infringement.
For this purpose, the judge of expedited matters may take all decisions authorized by the
law, in particular, ex-parte decisions, in order to ensure the protection of the right or the work
that is likely to be infringed and all the other works owned by the author or the holder of
related rights. The judge of expedited matters may impose coercive measures to enforce his
decisions. In addition, the president of the competent court of first instance or the competent
public prosecutor shall have the right to take the provisional measures referred to above.
82. The judge of expedited matters, the president of the court of first instance or the
public prosecutor may temporarily seize material constituting evidence of an infringement of
copyright or a related right and shall leave it in the custody of the defendant.
83. In case of infringement of copyright or a related right, the holders of these rights
may have recourse to the competent judicial authority and seek the cessation of the
infringement and the prevention of any future infringement.
84. Any person who infringes copyright or a related right shall be required to pay fair
compensation to the right holder for the material or moral injury and damage incurred. The
amount of such compensation shall be determined by the court based on the commercial value
of the work, the damage and lost profit incurred by the right holder and the material profit
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 16/19
realized by the infringer. The court may order the seizure of the subject matter in dispute and
the equipment and devices used to commit the infringement.
85. Irrespective of whether the work has fallen into the public domain or not, shall be
liable to imprisonment for a term varying from one month to three years and/or to a fine
varying from LBP 5 to 50 million, any person who:
– fraudulently puts or instructs another person to put a false name on a literary or
artistic work;
– fraudulently imitates the signature or the logo of the author with intent to mislead the
buyer;
– knowingly imitates a literary or artistic work;
– knowingly sells, possesses, offers for sale or makes available an imitated or a
plagiarized work.
The sanction shall be doubled in the event of a repetition of the offence.
86. Any person who, knowingly and with intent to make a profit, infringes or attempts
to infringe copyright or related rights provided for in this Law shall be liable to imprisonment
for a term varying from one month to three years and/or to a fine varying from LBP 5 to 50
million. The sanction shall be doubled in the event of a repetition of the offence.
The competent court may order the closure of the premises, the commercial
establishment or the radio or television station that infringes copyright for a period varying
from one week to one month and the destruction of all unauthorized copies and all the
equipment and the devices used to produce such copies. The court may also order that its
decision be published in two local newspapers at the expense of the defendant.
The provisions of Article 200 and subsequent Articles of the Penal Code shall be taken
into account when applying this Article.
87. Any person who manufactures or imports for purposes of sale or rental, offers for
sale or rental, possesses for the purpose of sale or rental, sells, installs or rents any device,
equipment or machine manufactured in whole or in part to receive illicitly any radio or
television broadcast or transmission destined to that section of the public that receives the said
broadcast or transmission on payment of a set fee, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term
varying from one month to three years and/or to a fine varying from LBP 5 to 50 million. The
sanction shall be doubled in the event of a subsequent offence.
88. Any person who arranges or facilitates for third parties the reception of the
transmission or broadcast referred to in the previous Article shall be liable to imprisonment
for a term varying from one month to three years and/or to a fine varying from LBP 5 to 50
million. The sanction shall be doubled in the event of a subsequent offence.
89. With regard to the foregoing violations, legal action may be instituted by the public
prosecutor ex officio or at the request of the person suffering damage or the president of the
Intellectual Property Protection Office.
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 17/19
90. The court shall communicate any judicial decision issued with regard to the
foregoing infringements to the Intellectual Property Protection Office within 15 days of the
date of the decision.
91. It shall be strictly prohibited to import, consign to a warehouse or a free zone or
transit sound recordings, or works that are imitations of sound recordings or works enjoying
legal protection in Lebanon. Such sound recordings and works shall be seized wherever they
are found.
92. The persons mentioned below shall have authority to identify, inventory and sample
suspect objects. These persons shall be: police and customs officers and employees of the
Intellectual Property Protection Office sworn in to that effect. These employees shall perform
their duties pursuant to an order or a mandate issued by the public prosecutor or the
Intellectual Property Protection Office and they shall notify the Office of all violations of the
provisions of this Law that come to their attention. Sworn- in employees of the Intellectual
Property Protection Office shall have police powers with regard to the implementation of the
provisions of this Law.
Suspect articles may be seized, inventoried and sampled wherever they are found. A
report must be drawn up of all sampling and inventorying and it must contain the following
information:
1. the name, surname, title and place of residence of the employee who has drawn up
the report;
2. the authority that has issued the order and the date it was communicated to the
employee;
3. the date, time and location of the operation;
4. the name, surname, nationality, place of residence and profession of the person on
whose premises the operation was carried out;
5. a detailed list of the suspect articles stating their number, kind and specifications;
6. the signature of the person in whose possession the articles or goods were found and if
he refuses to sign, his refusal shall be mentioned;
7. the signature of the officer who has drawn up the report.
The proprietor of the goods shall have the right to mention in the report all the information
and reservations he deems necessary and to obtain copies of the report and inventory if an
inventory has been drawn up separately. Civil action or penal proceedings must be filed with the
competent court within 15 days of the date of the report otherwise the whole operation will be
considered as void.
93. The court may, at the request of the plaintiff and before rendering its final judgment
order the seizure of all or some of the articles stated in the report and inventory. In such case, the
court may order the plaintiff to deposit with the court, prior to the seizure, a guarantee fixed by the
court based on the value of the articles to be seized.
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 18/19
The order shall designate the employee mandated to carry out the seizure, the place where
seized articles will be kept and the official receiver of such articles appointed by the court.
94. The officer who has carried out the seizure shall immediately draw up a report in two
copies, one of which should be delivered to the person whose goods have been seized. The report
shall be drawn up as prescribed in Article 92 and it shall be accompanied by an inventory of the
articles seized. The person whose goods have been seized, shall sign both copies and if he refuses
or fails to sign, his refusal or failure shall be mentioned in the space provided for the signature.
95. The person whose goods have been seized must be provided with the following
documents:
1. the order of seizure;
2. the document that establishes the deposit of the guarantee with the court if the court
orders the deposit of such guarantee;
3. the inventory of the articles seized;
4. the report of seizure.
96. If the Intellectual Property Protection Office carries out an investigation at the request
of the person suffering damages, it shall charge him a LBP 100,000 fixed fee.
97. The judgment rendered with regard to the above-mentioned proceedings shall provide
for the imposition of the following complementary penalties:
1. the judgment shall be posted at the places designated by the court and it shall be
published at the expense of the defendant in two local newspapers designated by the court that has
rendered the judgment;
2. if the losing party represents a newspaper, a magazine or a radio or television station, the
judgment must be published in this newspaper, magazine or radio or television station in addition
to the two newspapers mentioned above.
Chapter XII
Transitional and Temporary Provisions
98. All works, whether published or not, created before the entry into force of this Law,
shall enjoy the period of protection prescribed in this Law provided that they have not fallen
into the public domain by the effective date of this Law. The period of protection that has
lapsed before the issuance of this Law shall be deducted from the period of protection
provided for in this Law.
99. Any author, producer or publisher of any book or publication must send, free of
charge, to the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education five copies of the said work.
100. Articles 137 to 180 inclusive of Decision No. 2385, dated January 17, 1924
(amended), and Articles 722 to 729 inclusive, of the Penal Code shall be repealed.
YH Collection of Laws for Electronic Access LEBANON
LB001EN Copyright, Law, 03/04/1999, n° 75 page 19/19
101. This law shall be published in the official gazette and it shall have effect two
months after its publication.
* Entry into force: June 14, 1999.
Source: English text communicated by the Lebanese authorities.
Note: Editing by the International Bureau of WIPO.
** Added by the International Bureau of WIPO.

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Terms of use
Article 1. Contracting parties.
1. The Parties of this Public Offer (paid service agreement), hereinafter referred to as the “Agreement” or “Offer”, are, as follows:
a) Executor is a person, who makes this Offer and who executes this Agreement in accordance with its terms and conditions: Solcity World Investment and Development; and
b) Customer is a person, who accepts this Offer and who is the author of any publication.

Article 2. Acceptance.
1. The Customer shall accept this Offer in case of and after the following activities:
a) fill in and send to the Executor an application in electronic format in the form established by this Agreement and posted on the Executor’s official website; and
b) provide the author’s abstract specifying what material was created by the author; and
c) provide a list of all key words (tags) that enable finding the location of the author’s abstract of the Customer on the Executor’s website; and
d) post (“upload”) the material itself on the Executor’s official website; and
e) pay for the Executor’s services in the amount and following the procedure set forth by this Agreement.
2. The Executor shall verify the Customer’s data and post the information about the Customer and his/her work of authorship on SciReg.org in Internet. From this moment on, the Customer shall be considered as an acceptor of this Offer and a Party to this Agreement.
3. The Executor shall be entitled, without giving any reasons, to refuse the Customer to accept this Offer and the Customer unconditionally, entirely and irrevocably agrees with this provision.

Article 3. Scope of the Agreement.
1. The Executor hereof shall render services on establishing, formation and maintenance of the Copyright register in electronic format on the Executor’s official website in Internet.
2. The Executor hereof shall render to the Customer paid services on posting (publishing) of information about the applicant as the author of the material under the terms and in accordance with this Agreement.
3. The work of authorship shall be understood by the Parties as a subject matter of copyright established by the Civil Code or other laws of the Author’s Country of domicile. 
4. The Executor shall publish information (data), hereinafter referred to as the “summary”, about the applicant as the author of the material in the Register posted on the Executor’s official website in Internet under the terms set forth by this Agreement.
5. The Executor shall be entitled, at his own discretion and without coordination with the Customer, to assign his obligations for execution of this Agreement to any third party, and the Customer unconditionally agrees with this provision.


Article 4. Register.
1. The Register shall be an ordered and standardized register containing a summary of the Customer: Author’s information, including co-authors, name of the work of authorship, publication date, author’s abstract revealing the content of the work of authorship and its unique character, as well as a unique number of posting in the Register assigned to the author and his/her material automatically by the Executor, key words (tags) that enable any person to find information about the author and his/her publication posted in the Register on the Executor’s official website in Internet.
2. The author’s abstract shall be a brief description of the author’s publication designating its unique character and showing that the Customer is its author.
3. The Register shall be maintained in electronic form on the Executor’s official website in Internet.
4. Information about the author, work of authorship and other information required by the rules for information posting in the Register, set forth by the Executor, except for the unique number, shall be posted by the Customer individually on the Executor’s official website in Internet.
5. Both the Register and the official website shall be the Executor’s property.
6. Any and all information posted by the Customer in the Register in accordance with the terms set forth by this Agreement shall be the Executor’s property. Hereby, the Customer shall not transfer copyright for his/her work of authorship to the Executor.
7. The rules for maintenance of the Register, its execution, posting of any details (information) in it shall constitute Appendix 1 to this Agreement forming an integral part hereof. The rules shall be issued exclusively by the Executor. The Executor, without coordination with the Customer and the Customer’s consent, shall have the right to make any changes in and/or amendment to the Register maintenance rules and the Customer unconditionally agrees with this provision. The Register maintenance rules shall be unconditionally mandatory for the Customer.

Article 5. Obligations of the Parties.
1. The Parties hereto shall (hereby shall be obliged to) unconditionally, voluntarily, conscientiously, and accurately follow all provisions of this Agreement, as well as any and all supplements, amendments and/or alterations hereto made under the terms set forth by this Agreement.
2. The Customer shall pay for the Executor’s services following the procedure and in the amount established by this Agreement.
3. The Customer, in contemplation of his/her death, shall be obliged to bind defendants to the terms of this Agreement.
4. If the Customer’s copyright is assigned to a third party, he/she shall be obliged to bind such third party to his/her obligations hereunder.
5. The Customer shall have an exclusive right to refer, in any form, to his/her summary (synopsis, author’s abstract) posted in the Register on the Executor’s official website in Internet in case of complete and fair execution of his/her obligations under this Agreement.

Article 6. Payment for the Executor’s services. Agreement price.
1. The Customer shall pay for the Executor’s services following the procedure and in the amount established by the provisions of this Article.
2. The price for one posting by the applicant of one his/her summary in the Register shall be 20 (twenty) US Dollars – price of this Agreement.
3. The procedure for paying the amount set forth by this Article of the Agreement shall be determined in Appendix 1 to this Agreement.
4. The applicant shall pay the amount stated in para 2 of this Article (pay for the Executor’s service) to the Executor at the time of registration.
5. The amounts paid hereunder by the Customer to the Executor shall be nonreturnable.
6. Each Party shall individually pay any and all own taxes, duties and/or fees established by the legislation of the Party in connection with execution of the terms hereof by the Party. Neither party shall be a fiscal agent of the other Party.

Article 7. Withdrawal from the Agreement.
1. The Customer shall be entitled to withdraw from execution of this Agreement in the form of non-payment of a next settlement set forth by this Agreement.
2. The Executor shall have the right, including in his sole discretion, to withdraw from execution of this Agreement without reimbursement to the Customer of any expenses and/or losses (damages), as well as without payment of any penalty and/or penalty fee and/or any other forfeit, and the Customer unconditionally and entirely agrees with this provision, in the following case (cases):
a) failure to pay by the Customer for the services to the Executor in the amount and under the terms set forth by this Agreement; and/or
b) provision of false information by the Customer; and/or
c) any other technical reasons.

Article 8. Information sharing. 
1. Unless otherwise provided for in this Agreement, the Parties hereto may share information, and this information for the Parties shall be regarded as official, by phone, fax, sms, Skype, via e-mail and/or in writing (in hard copy). 
2. The Parties hereto may share documents and these documents shall be legally effective for the Parties and considered properly received by the Parties by fax, Skype, via e-mail, in writing in hard copy, unless otherwise provided for in this Agreement. A signature affixed to the document forwarded by any Party via e-mail shall be accepted by the Parties. A signature affixed to the document forwarded by any Party by fax shall be accepted by the Parties. A signature affixed to the document forwarded by any Party via Skype shall be accepted by the Parties.
3. Along with the afore-mentioned, the Parties may have electronic documentary interchange and affix their electronic digital signatures (EDS) on any and all documents.

Article 9. Arbitration.
1. All disputes arising between the Parties in relation to interpretation of this Agreement and/or execution of this Agreement shall be settled by the Parties in the form of bilateral negotiations. 
2. If the Parties fail to reach a compromise during negotiations, they shall settle their dispute in the arbitration court (arbitration) of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of British Virgin Islands.
3. As the rules of procedural law based on which the Parties shall settle their dispute, the Parties shall accept the rules of arbitration court (arbitration) of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of British Virgin Islands.
4. As the rules of substantive law based on which the Parties settle their dispute, the Parties shall accept this Agreement and rules of international agreements (conventions) regulating copyright legal relationship.

Article 10. Other terms and conditions.
1. This Agreement is made in written and electronic form, in one counterpart, which: 
a) Agreement in writing is kept in the Executor’s office, and 
b) posted in electronic form on the Executor’s official website in Internet.
2. Alteration, amendments and/or supplements to this Agreement shall be made in written and electronic form by the Executor individually, in a single hard counterpart and a single electronic counterpart posted on the official website in Internet and the Customer unconditionally agrees with this provision. 
3. Changes in this Agreement shall be made by the Executor as a new version of the Agreement.
4. If the Customer disagrees with new terms and conditions, he/she shall have a right to withdraw from the Agreement following the procedure and terms set forth by this Agreement.

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