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18+

... And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free ... John 8.32
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List of countries' copyright length
List of countries' copyright length

List of countries' copyright length
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of different countries and the length of their standard copyright in years. See copyright term.
Although they are not countries, the list also includes entries for the European Union, Berne Convention, and the Universal Copyright Convention, which set minimum terms for their member nations or signatories. The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), though not included, requires a copyright length of at least 50 years after death.
Contents [hide]
1 Legend
2 Table
3 Table notes
4 See also
5 Notes
6 External links
[edit]Legend

ibid. = ibidem, "in the same place"
0, no copyright = not copyrighted
Life + xx years = copyrighted for authors' lifetime plus xx years after their deaths
xx years after publication, creation, etc. = copyrighted for xx years since publication, creation, etc., of works
Until year end = copyrighted until the end of a calendar year, i.e. December 31
[edit]Table

Countries, areas, and entities    Copyright terms based on authors' deaths    Copyright terms based on publication and creation dates    Until year end?
Afghanistan    0, no copyright.[1]    0, no copyright.    
Albania    Life + 70 years[2]    70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[3]

70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (photographic or audiovisual work of joint authorship)[4]
25 years from production (works of applied art)[5]
Yes[6]
Algeria    Life + 50 years (except posthumous work)[7]    50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (collective work, anonymous or pseudonymous work, audiovisual work, posthumous work)[8]

50 years from creation (photographs or the work of applied art)[9]
Yes[10]
Andorra    Life + 70 years[11][12]    70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (collective work with unknown authorship)[13]

70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[14]
Yes[15]
Angola    Life + 50 years[16]

Life + 25 years (photographic works or applied arts)[16]
Yes[16]
Anguilla    Life + 50 years[17]    50 years from the death of the author, of the last surviving author for works with more than one author[17].    
Antigua and Barbuda    Life + 50 years[18][19]    50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work, computer generated work, sound recording or film)[20]

50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[21]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]
Yes[23]
Argentina    Life + 70 years[24]    50 years from publication (anonymous intellectual works belonging to institutions, corporations or legal persons)[25]    Yes[26]
Armenia    Life + 50 years (except posthumous work first published within 50 years after the author's death)[27]    50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works; posthumous work first published within 50 years after the author's death)[28]    Yes[29]
Aruba    unknown        
Australia (including external territories)    Life + 70 years[30]

[Life + 50 years (death before 1955)][31]
70 years from publication (sound recordings, cinematograph films)[32]

50 years after making (television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[33]
[50 years from publication (photographs, no longer applicable since 1 January 2005)][31]
Yes[34]
Austria    Life + 70 years[35][36]    70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[37]    Yes[38]
Azerbaijan    Life + 50 years (except posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[39]    50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work; posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[40]    Yes[41]
Bahamas    Berne        
Bahrain    Life + 50 calendar years (except posthumous work)[42]    50 calendar years from publication (cinematographic films, applied arts works and photographs; anonymous or pseudonymous works; corporate works; posthumous works)[43]

40 years from publication or 50 years from completion, whichever is earlier (computer software)[44]
Bangladesh    Life + 50 years        
Barbados    Life + 50 years[45][46]    50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[47]

50 years from making (computer-generated work)[48]
50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (sound recordings and films)[49]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[50]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]
Yes[51]
Belarus    Life + 50 years[52]    50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[53]

50 years from fixation (performance)[54]
50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from fixation (phonogram)[55]
50 years from the first broadcast or cable transmission[56]
Yes[57]
Belgium    Life + 70 years[58]        
Belize    Life + 50 years[59]        
Benin    Life + 50 years        
Bermuda    Life + 50 years[60]        
Berne Convention signatories    Life + 50 years[61]

Signatories may grant longer terms.[62]
50 years from publication or if not shown 50 years from creation (cinematographic works)[63]

50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[64]
25 years from creation (photographic works)[65]
Signatories may grant longer terms.[62]
Yes[66]
Bhutan    Life + 50 years[67]        
Bolivia    Life + 50 years[68]        
Bosnia and Herzegovina    Life + 70 years[69]        
Botswana    Berne, TRIPS, WCT[70]        
Brazil    Life + 70 years[71]        
British Indian Ocean Territory    unknown        
British Virgin Islands    unknown        
Brunei    Life + 50 years[72]        
Bulgaria    Life + 70 years (EU)[73]        
Burkina Faso    Life + 70 years[74]        
Burundi    Life + 50 years        
Cambodia    Life + 50 years[75]        
Cameroon    Life + 50 years[76]        
Canada    Life + 50 years[77]        
Cape Verde    Life + 50 years[78]        
Cayman Islands    unknown        
Central African Republic    Berne, TRIPS        
Chad    Berne, TRIPS        
Chile    Life + 70 years[79]        
China, People's Republic of (Mainland only)    Life + 50 years (citizens' works)[80]    50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of legal entities, cinematographic works, films or photographic works)[81]    Yes[6]
Colombia    Life + 80 years[82]    80 years from publication (cinematographic works)[29]    Yes[83]
Comoros    Berne        
Congo (Democratic Republic)    Berne, TRIPS        
Congo (Republic)    Berne, TRIPS        
Costa Rica    Life + 70 years[84]        
Côte d'Ivoire    Life + 99 years (except posthumous works published within this period)[85]    99 years from publication (photographic or audiovisual works or works of applied art; anonymous or pseudonymous works; posthumous works)[86]    Yes[87]
Croatia    Life + 70 years[88]        
Cuba    Life + 50 years        
Cyprus    Life + 50 years
(EU, WCT)[89]        
Czech Republic    Life + 70 years[90]    70 years from publication (anonymous works)[91]    Yes[92]
Denmark    Life + 70 years[93]        
Djibouti    Life + 25 years (Berne, TRIPS)[94]    25 years from publication or if unpublished 25 years from completion (film)[95]

25 years from completion (a photographic work or a work of applied art)[96]
Yes[97]
Dominica    Life + 70 years[98]        
Dominican Republic    Life + 50 years[99]        
Ecuador    Life + 70 years[100]        
Egypt    Life + 50 years[101]        
El Salvador    Life + 50 years[102]        
Equatorial Guinea    Berne        
Eritrea    unknown        
Estonia    Life + 70 years (EU)[103]    70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[104]    Yes[105]
Ethiopia    Life + 50 years[106]        
European Union members    Life + 70 years[107]    70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (anonymous works)[108]    Yes[25]
Fiji    Life + 50 years[109]        
Finland    Life + 70 years[110]    50 years from publication (sound recordings, television broadcasts and sound broadcasts) [111]
50 years from creation (photographic works) [112]
Yes[113]
France    Life + 70 years (except posthumous works published after this term)[114][115]

The following additions to copyright term formerly applied to all works, but the French Cour de Cassation has found them to be superseded by later copyright treaties, thus limiting the copyright term to life + 70 years total, at least for non-musical works of authors who did not "die for France".[116]

+ 6 years 152 days for musical work published through 1920[117]
+ 8 years and 120 days for musical work published through 1947[118]
+ 30 years for all works if the author died on active service[119]
70 years from publication (pseudonymous, anonymous or collective works)[120]

25 years from publication (posthumous works published after Art. L123-1 term)[121]
Yes[122]
Gabon    Berne, TRIPS, WCT        
Gambia    Life + 50 years[123]        
Georgia    Life + 70 years[124]        
Germany[125]    Life + 70 years[126]        
Ghana    Life + 70 years[127]        
Greece    Life + 70 years[128][129]    70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[130]    Yes[131]
Grenada    Berne, TRIPS[132]        
Guatemala    Life + 75 years[133]    75 years from publication or if unpublished 75 years from creation (computer programs and collective works; anonymous or pseudonymous works; audiovisual works)[134]    Yes[135]
Guinea    TRIPS, WCT        
Guinea-Bissau    Berne, TRIPS        
Guyana    Life + 50 years[136]        
Haiti    Berne, TRIPS[137]        
Honduras    Life + 75 years[138]    70 years from publication or, if unpublished within 50 years, 70 years from creation (works of applied art and photographs)[139]    Yes[139]
Hong Kong[140]    Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with known authorship)[141]

Life + 50 years (films)[142]
50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with unknown authorship)[143]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recordings)[144]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[145]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of published editions)[146]
Yes[147]
Hungary    Life + 70 years[148]        
Iceland    Life + 70 years[149]        
India[150]    Life + 60 years (except posthumous works)[151][152]    60 years from publication (posthumous works, photographs, cinematograph films, sound recordings, works of public undertakings, and works of international organisations)[153]    Yes[154]
Indonesia    Life + 50 years[155]        
Iran    Life + 30 years[156]    30 years from publication (photographic or cinematographic works)[157]    
Iraq    Life + 50 years[158]        
Ireland    Life + 70 years[159]        
Israel    Life + 70 years[160]    50 years from publication (photographs created till May 2007)[161]    Yes[162]
Italy    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][163]    70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[164]

20 years from publication (copyright of State, the provinces, the communes, the academies or public cultural organizations, or to private legal entities of a non-profit making character)
Yes[165]
Jamaica    Life + 50 years[166]        
Japan    Life + 50 years[167]    70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (cinematographic works)[168]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of a legal person or other corporate body)[169]
Yes[170]
Jordan    Life + 50 years[171]        
Kazakhstan    Life + 50 years[172]        
Kenya    Life + 50 years (literary, musical or artistic work other than photographs)[173]    50 years from the latest of creation or publication (audio-visual works and photographs)[174]    Yes[175]
Kiribati    Life + 50 years[123]        
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)    Berne        
Korea, Republic of (South)    Life + 50 years[176]    50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (organizational works)[177]    Yes[178]
Kuwait    TRIPS[179]        
Kyrgyzstan    Life + 50 years[180]        
Laos    0, no copyright.[181]    0, no copyright.    
Latvia    Life + 70 years[182]
[Life + 50 years][183]    70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[184]    Yes[177]
Lebanon    Life + 50 years[185]        
Lesotho    Life + 50 years[123]
Libya    Life + 25 years with 50-year minimum (as of 1968; may have changed since)        
Liechtenstein    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][186]        
Lithuania    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][187]        
Luxembourg    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][188]        
Macau(b)    Life + 50 years[189]    50 years from publication (anonymous works)[190]

50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[191]
25 years from completion (works of applied art and photographic works)[192]
Yes[193]
Macedonia    Life + 70 years[194]        
Madagascar    Life + 70 years[195]        
Malawi    Life + 50 years[196]        
Malaysia    Life + 50 years[197]        
Maldives    TRIPS        
Mali    Life + 50 years[198]        
Malta    Life + 70 years[199]        
Marshall Islands    0, no copyright. Copyright legislation is not known to exist.[200]    0, no copyright.    
Mauritania    Berne, TRIPS        
Mauritius    Life + 50 years[201]        
Mexico    Life +100 years (effective 23 July 2003 non-retroactively)[202]

[Life + 75 years (before the law change on 23 July 2003, applicable for deaths before 23 July 1928)][203]
Micronesia    Life + 50 years[204]        
Moldova    Life + 50 years[205]        
Monaco    WCT        
Mongolia    Life + 50 years[206]        
Montenegro[207]    Life + 70 years[208]        
Morocco    Life + 50 years[209]        
Mozambique    Life + 70 years[210]        
Myanmar    TRIPS        
Namibia    Life + 50 years (except posthumous works)[211]    50 years from publication (posthumous works)[212]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs)[213]
Yes[214]
Nauru    unknown        
Nepal    Life + 50 years[215]        
Netherlands[216]    Life + 70 years[217]        
New Zealand    Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work)[218]    50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[219]    Yes[220]
Nicaragua    Life + 70 years[221]        
Niger    Life + 50 years[222]        
Nigeria    Life + 70 years (literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs)[223]    70 years from publication (literary, musical or non-photograph artistic works in the case of government or a body corporate)

50 years from publication (cinematograph films and photographs)
50 years from creation (sound recordings)
50 years from publication (broadcasts)[223]
Yes[223]
Norway    Life + 70 years[224]        
Oman    Life + 50 years[225]        
Pakistan    Life + 50 years[226]        
Palau    Life + 50 years[227]        
Panama    Life + 50 years[228]        
Papua New Guinea    Life + 50 years[229]        
Paraguay    Life + 70 years[230]        
Peru    Life + 70 years[231]        
Philippines    Life + 50 years[232]    50 years from publication (photographic works)[233]    Yes[234]
Poland    Life + 70 years[235]        
Portugal    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][236]        
Qatar    Life + 50 years[237]        
Romania    Life + 70 years[238]        
Russia    Life + 70 years starting July 28, 2004[239]
[Life + 50 years (death before 1953)][240]        
Rwanda    Berne, TRIPS        
St. Kitts and Nevis    Life + 50 years[123]        
St. Lucia    Life + 50 years[241]        
St. Vincent and the Grenadines    Life + 75 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work)[242]    75 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recording or film)[243]

50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[244]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[245]
Yes[246]
Samoa    Berne        
San Marino    unknown        
São Tomé and Príncipe    unknown        
Saudi Arabia    Life + 50 years[247]        
Senegal    Berne, TRIPS        
Serbia[248]    Life + 70 years[208]        
Seychelles    Life + 25 years[249]    25 years from publication (photograph, film, or broadcast)[250]

25 years from creation (sound recording)[251]
Yes[243]
Singapore[252]    Life + 70 years (except posthumous work)[253][254]    70 years from publication (posthumous work, photograph)[255]

70 years from publication (sound recordings and cinematograph films)[256]
50 years after making (television broadcasts, sound broadcasts, cable programmes)[257]
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[258]
Yes[259]
Slovakia    Life + 70 years[260]        
Slovenia    Life + 70 years[261]        
Solomon Islands    Life + 50 years[262]        
Somalia    unknown        
South Africa    Life + 50 years (literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs)[263]    50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematograph films, photographs, computer programs)[213]

50 years from publication (sound recordings; broadcasts; programme-carrying signals; and published editions)[264]
Yes[214]
Spain    Life + 70 years
[Life + 80 years(1879–1987), Life + 60 years(1987–1994)][265]        
Sri Lanka    Life + 50 years[266]    50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from completion (cinematographic, radiophonic or audiovisual work)[267]

25 years from publication (photographic work or a work of applied art)[268]
Yes[269]
Sudan    Life + 50 years[270]    25 years from publication (photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works; works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously)[271]    
Suriname    Berne, TRIPS        
Swaziland    Life + 50 years[272]        
Sweden    Life + 70 years[273]        Yes[273]
Switzerland    Life + 70 years effective 1 July 1993 non-retroactively, but Life + 50 years for computer programs[274]

[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 July 1993, applicable for deaths through 1942)][275]
50 years after performance (performers' rights)[276]    Yes[277]
Syria    Life + 50 years[278]    10 years from production (photographic, fine arts or plastic arts)[279]    
Taiwan, Republic of China (Chinese Taipei)    Life + 50 years (except posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[280]    50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[281]

50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (corporate works; photographic works, audiovisual works, sound recordings, and performances)[282]
10 years from publication (posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[283]
Yes[284]
Tajikistan    Berne        
Tanzania    Life + 50 years[285]        
Thailand    Life + 50 years[286]    50 years from publication or 50 years from creation if not published within 50 years from creation    
Timor Leste    Life + 50 years[155]        
Togo    Life + 50 years[287]        
Tonga    Life + 50 years[288]        
Trinidad and Tobago    Life + 50 years[289]        
Tunisia    Life + 50 years[290]        
Turkey    Life + 70 years[291]        
Turkmenistan    unknown        
Tuvalu    Life + 50 years[123]        
Uganda    TRIPS        
Ukraine    Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][292]        
United Arab Emirates    Life + 50 years[293]        
United Kingdom    Life + 70 years[294]    50 years after release or if not released 50 years after making (sound recordings) [2][22]    Yes[295]
United States of America[296]    Life + 70 years (works published since 1978 or unpublished works)[297]    95 years from publication or 120 years from creation whichever is shorter (anonymous works, pseudonymous works, or works made for hire, published since 1978)[298]

95 years from publication for works published 1964–1977; 28 (if copyright not renewed) or 95 years from publication for works published 1923–1963 (Copyrights prior to 1923 have expired.)[299]
Yes[300]
Universal Copyright Convention minimum terms    Life + 25 years (general works)[301]    25 years from publication (specific works not based on authors' deaths)[302]

10 years (photographic works or to works of applied art)[303]
Uruguay    Life + 50 years[304]        
Uzbekistan    Life + 50 years[305]        
Vanuatu    unknown        
Vatican City    Life + 70 years[306]        
Venezuela    Life + 60 years[307]    60 years from publication; 60 years from creation if unpublished (an audiovisual work, a broadcast work or a computer program)[29]

60 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[164]
Yes[308]
Vietnam    Berne        
Yemen    Life + 30 years        
Zambia    Life + 50 years[309]        
Zimbabwe    Life + 50 years[310][311]    50 years from publication (photographs)[312]

50 years from creation (Sound recordings)[313]
50 years from publication (cinematograph films, broadcasts)[314]
Yes[315]
[edit]Table notes

Terms of protection were taken from a variety of sources, including WIPO, UNESCO and the University of Pennsylvania (see External links). Where no more specific information is available for a country, an indication of its probable minimum copyright term can be gained from its status as:
a signatory of the Berne Convention ("Berne"); minimum term of life + 50 years, except for photographs.
a member of the WTO ("TRIPS"); minimum term of life + 50 years.
a candidate for membership of the European Union ("EU"); term must be life + 70 years before accession.
[edit]See also

Official text copyright
Rule of the shorter term
Moral rights
CERLALC, an intergovernmental organization promotes the development of book publishing and copyright issues in Latin America and the Caribbean.
[edit]Notes


Constructs such as ibid. and loc. cit. are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.
^ http://www.goodwinprocter.com/~/media/A5C66A80AB93408C857813C59512C1BA.ashx
^ Art. 17, Law no. 7564 of 19 April 1992, as modified by Law no. 7923 of 19 May 1995
^ Art. 18,, ibid.
^ Art. 19, ibid.
^ Art. 20, ibid.
^ a b Art. 21, ibid.
^ Art. 54, Ordonnance n° 03-05 du 19 Joumada El Oula 1424 correspondant au 19 juillet 2003 relative aux droits d’auteur et aux droits voisins
^ Arts. 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
^ Art. 59, ibid.
^ Arts. 54, 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Andorra for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue and the composer of music specifically created for the audiovisual work.
^ Art. 18(1), (4), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 1999
^ Art. 18(3), ibid.
^ Art. 18(5), ibid.
^ Art. 18(8), ibid.
^ a b c Art. 20(1), Copyright Law n° 4/90, March 1990
^ a b IP laws revised - Anguilla
^ Literary, dramatic, musical or copyright artistic work.
^ s. 10(1), Copyright Act, 2002
^ s. 10(2), (4), 11(1), ibid.
^ s. 12(1), ibid.
^ a b c s. 13, ibid.
^ s. 10(1), 10(2), (4), 11(1), 12(1), 13, ibid.
^ Art. 5, Ley 11.723 del 28 de septiembre de 1933, as modified by Ley 24.870 del 11 de septiembre de 1997
^ a b Art. 8, ibid.
^ Art. 5, ibid.
^ Art. 26, 1st paragraph, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 12 January 2000
^ Art. 26, 3rd and 7th paragraphs, ibid.
^ a b c Art. 26, ibid.
^ s. 33, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
^ a b Australian Copyright Council Information Sheets G023 (Duration)
^ s. 93, 94, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
^ s. 95, ibid.
^ All previous Australian references
^ A cinematographic work is copyrighted in Austria for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the principal director of the film and the authors of the screenplay, the dialogues and the musical work specially created for the cinematographic work.
^ § 60, 62, Urheberrechtsgesetz;
§ 1(2), Urheberrechtsgesetznovelle 1972 (Nr. 492, 1972-12-16)
^ § 61, Urheberrechtsgesetz
^ § 64, ibid.
^ Art. 25(1), (2), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 5 June 1996
^ Arts. 25(2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
^ Art. 25(1), (2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
^ Art. 31(1), Legislative Decree no. 10 of 1993
^ Art. 31(2)(a), (b), (c), (d), ibid.
^ Art. 31(3), ibid.
^ Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work.
^ s. 10(1), Copyright, Act, 05/03/1998, No. 4
^ s. 10(3), ibid.
^ s. 10(4), ibid.
^ s. 11, ibid.
^ s. 12, ibid.
^ s. 10, 11, 12, 13, ibid.
^ Art. 22(1), Law 194-3 of 11 August 1998
^ Art. 22(2), ibid.
^ Art. 38(1), ibid.
^ Art. 38(2), ibid.
^ Art. 38(3), ibid.
^ Arts. 22(4), 38(4), ibid.
^ Wet betreffende het auteursrecht en de naburige rechten van 30 juni 1994. (Hoofdstuk 1, afdeling 1, Art. 2)/Loi relative au droit d’auteur et aux droits voisins du 30 juin 1994.
^ s. 10, Copyright Act Ch. 252
^ How long does copyright last? from Bermuda Government website.
^ Art. 7, Berne Convention(1)
^ a b Art. 7(6), ibid.
^ Art. 7(2), ibid.
^ Art. 7(3), ibid.
^ Art. 7(4), ibid.
^ Art. 7(5), ibid.
^ s. 18, Copyright Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
^ Art. 18, Ley No 1322 de 13 de abril de 1992
^ Art. 84, Law on Copyright and Related Rights (7/02)
^ Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, Act No. 8 of 2000
^ Art. 41, Law no 9610 of 19 February 1998
^ s. 14, Emergency (Copyright) Order 1999
^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, last changed in 2007
^ Art. 34, Loi N°032-99AN portant protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique
^ Art. 30, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2003
^ Art. 37, Loi no 2000/011 du 19 décembre 2000
^ s. 6, Copyright Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-42 );
s. 7, S.C. 1997, c. 24
^ Art. 19, Lei no. 101/III/90 de 29 de dezembro de 1990
^ Art. 3, Law 19914 implementing free trade agreement with the US (2003)
^ Art. 21, first paragraph, Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China
^ Art. 21, second and third paragraphs, ibid.
^ Art. 21, Ley 23 de 1982
^ Art. 28, ibid.
^ Art. 58, Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos modified by the Ley 7979 del 6 del enero del 2000
^ Art. 45(1), Loi no. 96-564 du 25 juillet 1996
^ Art. 45(3)(a), (b), (c), ibid.
^ Art. 45, ibid.
^ Art. 99, Copyright and Related Rights Act 197/2003
^ s. 4, Copyright Law 1976
^ Art. 27(1), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
^ Art. 27(3), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
^ Art. 27(7), ibid.
^ s. 63, Consolidated Act on Copyright 2006
^ Art. 59, Loi n°114/AN/96/3e L relatif à la protection du droit d'auteur
^ Art. 62, ibid.
^ Art. 63, ibid.
^ Art. 65, ibid.
^ s. 11, Copyright Act 2003
^ Art. 21, Ley sobre Derecho de Autor del 24 de julio de 2000
^ Art. 80, Ley No 83 de Propiedad Intelectual (1998)
^ Art. 160, Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
^ Art. 86, Decreto Legislativo No. 604 del 15 de julio de 1993
^ § 38(1), Edition of the Copyright Act effective since 01.01.2009 (Estonian); First enacted on 11.11.1992
^ § 40, ibid.
^ § 43, ibid.
^ Wondwossen Belete (2004), The Intellectual Property System in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office, Addis Ababa, December 2004; see also [1]
^ Art. 1 (1), Directive 2006/116/EC
^ Art. 1 (3), (6), ibid.
^ Copyright Act 1999
^ Art. 43, Law No. 404/1961, as amended by Law No. 1654/1995
^ Arts. 46, 48, Copyright, Act, 08/07/1961
^ Art. 49a, ibid.
^ Art. 43, ibid.
^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in France for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue, the author of the musical compositions, with or without words, specially composed for the work and the main director.
^ Arts. L123-1, L123-2, Code de la propriété intellectuelle
^ Judgement No. 280 of February 27, 2007 Court of Cassation - First Civil Chamber 04-12138
^ Art. L123-8, ibid.
^ Art. L123-9, ibid.
^ Art. L123-10, ibid.
^ Art. L123-3, ibid.
^ Art. L123-4, ibid.
^ Arts. L123-1, L123-3, L123-4, ibid., but not Arts. L123-8 or, L123-9,
^ a b c d e Copyright Act 1956 (p)
^ Art. 31, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 22 June 1999
^ The Federal Republic of Germany is the successor state to the German Democratic Republic and to the German Empire
^ § 64, Urheberrechtsgesetz, as amended by the Law of 23 June 1995
^ Art. 12, Copyright Act, 2005
^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Greece for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue and the composer of the music specifically created for use in the audiovisual work.
^ Arts. 29, 31(3), Law 2121/1993
^ Art. 31(1), ibid.
^ Arts. 29, 31, ibid.
^ Copyright Act, dated 3 February 1989
^ Art. 43, Decreto No. 33-98, as modified by Art. 13, Decreto No. 56-2000
^ Arts. 44, 45, 47, ibid.
^ Art. 48, ibid.
^ Copyright Act 1956
^ Decree of January 9, 1968, relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic Works
^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
^ a b Art. 30, Decreto Ley 16 2006: Implementación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre la República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos
^ The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own status, distinct from that of the rest of China, under international copyright and trade law
^ s. 17(2), Copyright Ordinance (Cap. 528)
^ s. 19, ibid. Computed from the last of the following persons with known identity to survive: (a) the principal director; (b) the author of the screenplay; (c) the author of the dialogue; or (d) the composer of music specially created for and used in the film.
^ s. 17(3), ibid.
^ s. 18, ibid.
^ s. 20, ibid.
^ s. 21, ibid.
^ s. 17, 18, 20, 21, ibid.
^ Art. 31, Act No. LXXVI of 1999
^ Art. 43, Act No. 73/1972, as amended by Art. 4, Act No. 145/1996
^ See also Copyright in India.
^ Literary, dramatic, musical, and non-photograph artistic works.
^ s. 22, Copyright Act, 1957
^ s. 24, s. 25, s. 26, s. 27, s. 28A, s. 29, ibid.
^ s. 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28A, 29, ibid.
^ a b Art. 29, Law No. 19 of 2002
^ Art. 12, Copyright Law of 12 January 1970
^ Art. 16, ibid.
^ s. 2(11), Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2004/83
^ s. 24, Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000
^ Art. 5(4), Copyright Ordinance 1924
^ Art. 21, Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 16/12/1911
^ Art. 5(3), Copyright Ordinance 1924
^ Art. 25, Law No. 633 of 22 April 1941, as amended by Art. 17, Law No. 52 of 6 February 1996
^ a b Art. 27, ibid.
^ s. 25, s. 32ter, ibid.
^ s. 10, Copyright Act 1993
^ Art. 51(2), Law No. 48 of 6 May 1970, as amended in 2006
^ Art. 54(1), ibid.
^ Art. 53(1), ibid.
^ Art. 57, ibid.
^ Art. 30, Law No. 22 of 1992, as amended
^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 1996
^ s. 23(2)1, Copyright Act, 2001
^ s. 23(2), ibid.
^ s. 23, ibid.
^ Art. 36, Copyright Act of 30 December 1989
^ a b Art. 38, ibid.
^ Art. 40, ibid.
^ | Decree Law No. 64 of 1999 concerning Intellectual Property Rights
^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 16 December 1997
^ http://www.iipa.com/rbc/2007/2007SPEC301LAOS.pdf
^ Art. 36, Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 11 May 1993
^ Art. 37(2), Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
^ Art. 49, Loi sur la protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique (no. 75 du 3 avril 1999)
^ Art. 32, Law of 19 May 1999
[Art. 36, Law of 26 October 1928
^ Art. 34, Law No. IX-1355 (2003)
[Art. 536, Civil Code as modified by Law No. I-459 (1994)
^ Art. 9, Law of 18 April 2001
[Art. 2, Law of 29 March 1972]
^ Art. 21(1), Decree-Law 43/99/M of August 16, 1999
^ Art. 23, ibid.
^ Art. 106, ibid.
^ Arts. 148 & 155, ibid.
^ Art. 21(3), ibid.
^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights No. 47/96 as amended
^ Art. 52, Loi no. 94-036 portant sur la propriété littéraire et artistique
^ s. 13, Copyright Act, 1989
^ s. 17, Copyright Act 1987
^ Art. 90, Loi No. 8426/AN-RM
^ s. 4(2), Copyright Act, 2000
^ UNESCO Culture Sector
^ s. 12, Copyright Act 1997
^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (2003)
^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (1996)
^ § 113, Federated States of Micronesia Code, Title 35
^ Art. 17, Law No. 293-XIII of 23 November 1994
^ Art. 17, Law on Copyright of 1993
^ Montenegro is assumed to have succeeded to the copyright obligations of Serbia and Montenegro. See Serbia also.
^ a b Art. 100, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
^ Art. 25, Loi no. 2-00 relative aux droits d’auteur et droits voisins
^ Art. 22, Law No. 4/2001
^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act 98 of 1978, as amended by s. 3, Act 52 of 1984, s. 3, Act 125 of 1992 and by s. 52, Act 38 of 1997
^ s. 3(2)(a), ibid.
^ a b s. 3(2)(b), ibid.
^ a b s. 3, ibid.
^ Pustun Pradhan (2004). "Nepal's New Law on Copyright: Some Reflections", UNESCO e-Copyright Bulletin, January–March 2004.
^ Including the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba: although Dutch adhesion to the Berne convention only applies to the Kingdom in Europe, membership of the WTO includes the overseas territories
^ Art. 37, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
^ s. 22(1), Copyright Act 1994
^ s. 22(2), ibid.
^ s. 22, ibid.
^ Art. 27, Ley de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos (No. 312)
^ Art. 22, Ordinance 93-027 of 30 March 1993 on copyright, related rights and expressions of folklore
^ a b c Schedule I, Copyright Act (Cap. 68) 1990
^ s. 40, Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961
^ Art. 7, Royal Decree 37-2000
^ s. 18, Copyright Ordinance, 1962
^ s. 16, Republic of Palau Copyright Act of 2003
^ Art. 42, Ley No. 15 de 8 de agosto de 1994
^ s. 17, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000
^ Art. 47, Ley No. 1328/98 de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos
^ Art. 52, Decreto legislativo 822 del 23 de abril de 1996
^ s. 213.1, Intellectual Property Code
^ s. 213.5, ibid.
^ s. 214, ibid.
^ Art. 36, Law of February 4, 1994, on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, as amended by the Law of 22 July 2000
^ Art. 31, Code of Copyright and Related Rights, as amended by Decree Law No. 334/97 of 27 November 1997
^ s. 15, Law No. 7 of 2002
^ Art. 27, Law No. 8 of March 14, 1996
^ Source
^ Art. 2, Law 72-FZ, 2004
^ s. 10, Copyright Act, 1995
^ Copyright Act, 2003
^ a b s. 9(1), ibid.
^ s. 8(4), ibid.
^ s. 10(1), ibid.
^ s. 8, 9, 10, ibid.
^ Royal Decree No: M/41 2nd Rajab 1424 H August 30, 2003
^ Serbia is deemed to be a successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself was a successor state to Yugoslavia for international copyright treaties, notably the Berne Convention, effective 17 June 1930
^ s. 9(1)(i), Copyright Act, revised edition 1991
^ s. 9(1)(ii), (v), ibid.
^ s. 9(1)(iv), ibid.
^ See also the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore.
^ Literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph
^ s. 28(2), Copyright Act
^ s. 28(3), (6), ibid.
^ s. 92, 93, ibid.
^ s. 94, 95, ibid.
^ s. 96, ibid.
^ s. 28, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, ibid.
^ § 21, Law on Copyright and Rights Related to Copyright (Copyright Act) No. 618/2003
^ Art. 59, Copyright and Related Rights Act of 30 March 1995
^ s. 3, Copyright Act (Ch. 138)
^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act, 1978
^ s. 3(2)(c), (d), (e), (f), ibid.
^ Art. 23, Real Decreto 1/1996
^ s. 19(1), Code of Intellectual Property Act No. 52 of 1979
^ s. 19(4), ibid.
^ s. 19(5), ibid.
^ s. 19(6), ibid.
^ s. 13(2), Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996
^ s. 13(3)(a), (c), ibid.
^ Copyright Act No. 36 of 1912
^ a b Art. 43, Act 1960:729, as modified by Act 1995:1273
^ Art. 29 Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur par. 2
^ BGE 124 III 266
^ Art. 39, Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur
^ Art. 32, ibid.
^ Art. 22, Law No. 12/2001
^ Art. 25, ibid.
^ Art. 30, Copyright Act
^ Art. 32, ibid.
^ Arts. 33, 34, ibid.
^ Art. 30, ibid.
^ Art. 35, ibid.
^ s. 14, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999
^ s. 19, Copyright Act, B.E. 2537 (1994)
^ Art. 36, Loi no. 91-12 portant protection du droit d'auteur, du folklore et des droits voisins
^ s. 13, Copyright Act (Cap. 121)
^ s. 19, Copyright Act, 1997
^ Art. 18, Loi no. 94-36
^ Art. 27, Law No. 5846 of 5 December 1951
^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2001
 
^ s. 20, Federal Law No. 7 of 2002
^ s. 12, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
^ s. 12, 13, ibid.
^ See also Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Peter B. Hirtle.
^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(a)
^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(c)
^ 17 U.S.C. § 304
^ 17 U.S.C. § 305
^ Article IV 2(a), Universal Copyright Convention
^ Article IV 2(a), ibid.
^ Article IV 3, ibid.
^ Art. 14, Law on Copyright No. 9.739 of 17 December 1937
^ Art. 38, Law No. 272-I of 30 August 1996
^ N. XII. Legge sil diritto di autore
^ Art. 25, Ley sobre el Dercho de Autor as modified by the Decreto del 14 de agosto de 1993
^ Arts. 25, 26, 27, ibid.
^ s. 12, Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994
^ Literary, dramatic, and musical works; non-photograph artistic works.
^ s. 5(3), 6(3)(a), Copyright Act (Chapter 26:1)
^ s. 6(3)(b), ibid.
^ s. 16(2), ibid.
^ s. 17(2), s. 18(2), ibid.
^ s. 6, 16, 17, 18, ibid.

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